Monthly Archives: October 2016

Troubleshooting Natively Compiled Stored Procedures, Part 1

A subset of the tools available for troubleshooting interpreted stored procedures are available for troubleshooting natively compiled procedures.

The following table highlights the differences

Method Interpreted Natively compiled
Recompile specific statements Supported Not supported – but theoretically not required, due to the impossibility of parameter sniffing
Execute procedure with RECOMPILE Supported Not supported – but theoretically not required, due to the impossibility of parameter sniffing
Estimated/Actual plan Supported “Estimated Plan” makes no sense in the context of natively compiled stored procedures. The plan that will be executed is available from SHOWPLAN_XML or by clicking (“Estimated Plan” in SSMS, but it’s not “estimated”)
Remove plan from plan cache Supported Not supported – plans for natively compiled stored procedures are not stored in the plan cache.
DBCC FREEPROCCACHE Supported No effect, because plans for natively compiled stored procedures are not stored in the plan cache.
SET STATISTICS IO ON Supported Not supported/required, because there is no such thing as IO for memory-optimized tables.
SET STATISTICS TIME ON Supported Supported, but might not be 100% accurate, because execution times less than 1 millisecond are reported as 0 seconds. Total_worker_time may not be accurate if many executions take less than 1 millisecond.
SET FMTONLY Supported Not supported, but you can use sp_describe_first_result_set.
SHOWPLAN_XML Supported Supported
SHOWPLAN_ALL Supported Not supported
SHOWPLAN_TEXT Supported Not supported
Mismatched datatypes xEvents hekaton_slow_parameter_passing, with reason = parameter_conversion.
Named parameters, i.e.

EXEC dbo.Proc @Param1 = @Param1

Supported Supported, but not recommended, due to performance impact. You can track this type of execution with xEvents hekaton_slow_parameter_passing, with reason = named_parameters.

If any SET options are in effect, statistics are gathered at the procedure level and not at the statement level.

Note 1: Statement-level execution statistics can be gathered with xEvents by capturing the sp_statement_completed event. They can also be seen using Query Store (detailed in a future post).

Note 2: Due to the nature of working with memory-optimized tables in general, it’s likely that you will have to implement retry logic. Because of this, and also because of feature limitations within the natively compiled space, Microsoft suggest using an interpreted TSQL wrapper when calling natively compiled stored procedures.

The following query references sys.dm_exec_query_stats to get statistics for natively compiled procedures:

Note 3: The documentation for sys.dm_exec_query_stats states that the total_rows, min_rows, max_rows, and last_rows columns cannot be NULL, but NULL is still returned. A Connect item has been filed to have those columns return 0.

Parallelism

Parallelism is supported for memory-optimized tables for all index types. While that statement is true when using interpreted stored procedures that reference memory-optimized tables, unfortunately it’s not true when using natively compiled stored procedures.

Actual vs. Estimated

These terms have confused generations of SQL Server technologists.

For natively compiled procedures, enabling “Actual Plan” in SSMS does not return any plan information, but still executes the procedure. Enabling “Estimated Plan” in SSMS for natively compiled procedures is the same as setting SHOWPLAN_XML ON, but does not actually execute the stored procedure. The plan that will be executed is displayed.

Removing plans from the cache

For interpreted stored procedures, DBAs have the ability to remove an offending plan from the plan cache. This is not possible with natively compiled stored procedures, because the plan is not stored in the plan cache.

DBCC FREEPROCCACHE

If you execute DBCC FREEPROCCACHE and expect your natively compiled plans to magically disappear, you will no doubt be disappointed. That’s because DBCC FREEPROCCACHE has no effect on compiled modules, as they are not stored in the plan cache that’s used for interpreted TSQL. But executing DBCC FREEPROCCACHE will of course remove all existing plans for interpreted TSQL from the plan cache (so don’t do that…unless you’re really, really sure you want to recompile all of your interpreted procs).

Parameter sniffing

With interpreted stored procedures, parameter sniffing can severely impact performance. Parameter sniffing is not possible for natively compiled procedures, because all natively compiled procedures are executed with OPTIMIZE FOR UNKNOWN.

Statistics

SQL 2016 has the ability to automatically update statistics on memory-optimized tables if your database is has a compatibility level of at least 130. If you don’t want to depend on SQL Server to determine when stats should be updated, you can update statistics manually (and we no longer have to use FULLSCAN, as was the case in SQL 2014). Statistics for index key columns are created when an index is created.

Database upgrades and statistics

As mentioned earlier, if your database was set to compatibility level 120 (SQL 2014), and you want to take advantage of auto-update statistics, you must change the compatibility level to 130. But statistics still won’t be auto-updated unless you manually update them one last time.

Recompilation

When you create a natively compiled stored procedure, it gets compiled, and execution plans for the queries contained within the procedure are created. As the data changes, those execution plans will be based on older statistics, and might not perform at the highest possible level. Many people think that if you update statistics, natively compiled stored procedures will magically recompile. Unfortunately, this is not correct – natively compiled stored procedures are only recompiled under the following circumstances:

  • When you execute sp_recompile (this should be done after statistics are updated)
  • Database restart

Database restart includes at least the following events:

  • Database RESTORE
  • OFFLINE/ONLINE of database
  • Failover (FCI or Availability Group)
  • SQL Server service restart
  • Server boot

Unlike memory-optimized tables – which are all created, compiled, and placed into memory upon database restart – natively compiled stored procedures are recompiled when first executed. This reduces the amount of time required for database recovery, but affects the first-time execution of the procedure.

Plan operators

For traditional tables (harddrive-based), the number of pages expected to be returned by an operator has a significant impact on the cost, and therefore affects the plan. Since memory-optimized tables are not stored in pages, this type of calculation is irrelevant.

For memory-optimized tables, the engine keeps track of how many rows are in each table. This means that estimates for full table scans and index scans are always accurate (because they are always known). For memory-optimized tables, the most important factor for costing  is the number of rows that will be processed by a single operator. Older statistics might reference row counts that are no longer valid, and this can affect plan quality.

Nested execution

Prior to SQL 2014, it was not possible for one natively compiled stored procedure to call another natively compiled stored procedure. This restriction has been lifted in SQL 2016.

We will continue troubleshooting natively compiled stored procedures in a future post.

In-Memory OLTP: How fast can you write?

Typical bottlenecks for write-intensive workloads include:

  • the SQL Server engine (latching/locking)
  • continually (re)interpreted TSQL
  • write-ahead-logging (WAL)
  • logging of modifications to indexes
  • pessimistic concurrency

The design of In-Memory OLTP can address all of the items in the list above, but doing so can reveal new bottlenecks.

If you have a write-intensive In-Memory OLTP workload, and your data must be durable, you will likely find that WRITELOG is one of your top waits. That’s because regardless of database recovery setting, all DML changes to durable memory-optimized tables are fully logged.

A new type of storage (explained a bit later) allows for faster writes to the transaction log, but in order to grasp how it results in increased IO, we must fully understand the process of how changes are made to the transaction log.

Log Buffers

A database must have at least one data file and one transaction log file, but there is another critical component of transaction logging, known as the log buffer. This is an area of memory where log records are first written, before being flushed from memory to the actual log file.

When a change occurs to a table (on-disk table or durable memory-optimized table), log records are created in the log buffer. The contents of the log buffer are flushed to the log file when any of the following occurs:

  1. A transaction commits and that transaction has an active log record in the log buffer
  2. The 60K size limit for the log buffer is reached
  3. Data pages must be written to disk and there are log records in the log buffer related to those pages. Log records must be written to the log file before writing the data pages to the data files (this is known as Write Ahead Logging, and applies to on-disk tables, but not to memory-optimized tables).

(See “Observing SQL Server Transaction Log Flush Sizes using Extended Events and Process Monitor” at this link for more details)

In-Memory OLTP is capable of incredible performance, but it can be constrained by the requirement to navigate the IO stack for log writes. This means that you are not able to fully use all of the power in the cores you purchased, as proven in this Microsoft Ignite session (starting at 23:06).

The issues of core underutilization and the ability to improve writes to the transaction log can be addressed by a new type of storage known as NVDIMM-N, which is supported in Windows Server 2016. An NVDIMM-N is “persistent memory”, or “server class memory” (SCM), and has the following characteristics;

  1. One side is DD4 DRAM, and the other side is Flash storage
  2. Sits on the memory bus
  3. In the event of power failure, the contents of DRAM gets written to the Flash storage, via super cap, battery, or other means
  4. Extraordinary write speeds (see below)
  5. Fairly expensive
  6. Limited in capacity
  7. Are presented to the operating system as drives
  8. Formatted in two possible modes, explained below
  9. No need to cache data
  10. Allows full CPU usage

SQL Server can benefit from using persistent memory, because once the write to the log buffer occurs, data is guaranteed to persist – there is no need to flush the log buffer to disk. As a result, log writes are performed at the speed of memory, not the speed of IO, which would require a context switch and going through the kernel mode IO stack.

Block vs. DAX

As mentioned above, there are two different modes that can be used when formatting SCM storage:

  1. Block – sectors are written, no app changes required, but has overhead to convert to byte-addressable ranges, circumvents IO stack
  2. DAX – byte addressable, app changes required, circumvents IO stack, uses memory-mapped files

DAX is considerably faster than Block, because it allows your transaction log (or more accurately the log buffers associated with it) to be placed on byte-addressable storage.

How do we use SCM?

SCM uses DRAM slots, which has the effect of limiting max physical memory on the server. As mentioned before, it’s used for log buffers only, so only about 20MB per database is required (although DRAM size is specified in gigabytes). You can use a single NVDIMM-N to hold log buffers for multiple databases.

How fast is SCM?

Please see the Tobias Klima videos listed at the bottom of this post for benchmarking results.

Limitations

For those who trespass in the virtual world, Hyper-V cannot directly use persistent memory yet.

Server crash

If your server crashes, theoretically you can remove the persistent memory and place it in another server, as it’s just an NTFS formatted drive. The other server must also be running Windows Server 2016. S2D supports NVDIMMs as described here, and provide high availability for SCM, and are also to aggregate multiple NVDIMM-N for performance or resilience, depending on configuration.

Potential issues

Filter drivers might not work properly:

  • Caching
  • Encryption
  • Antivirus
  • Replication

These types of drivers can have issues when using SCM, because they work based on IOs, but there are no IOs when using SCM.

Benefits for In-Memory OLTP workloads

  • Eliminating WRITELOG waits
  • Allowing full usage of the expensive cores you purchased

More info

Tobias Klima (PM for MS Storage Group) has created videos about using SCM as Block storage here and byte-addressable storage here.

Glenn Berry wrote an excellent post on persistent memory here, where he describes using it as an alternative to deploying In-Memory OLTP. Hopefully this post has proven to you that deploying persistent memory has tangible benefits for In-Memory OLTP workloads as well.